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Variability and Global Distribution of Subgenotypes of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

Kadir Yeşilbağ1, Gizem Alpay1 and Paul Becher2

  • 1Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Uludag University, TR-16059 Bursa, Turkey

    2Institute for Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine, D-30559 Hannover, Germany


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a globally-distributed agent responsible for numerous clinical syndromes that lead to major economic losses. Two species, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, discriminated on the basis of genetic and antigenic differences, are classified in the genus Pestivirus within the Flaviviridae family and distributed on all of the continents. BVDV-1 can be segregated into at least twenty-one subgenotypes (1a–1u), while four subgenotypes have been described for BVDV-2 (2a–2d). With respect to published sequences, the number of virus isolates described for BVDV-1 (88.2%) is considerably higher than for BVDV-2 (11.8%). The most frequently-reported BVDV-1 subgenotype are 1b, followed by 1a and 1c. The highest number of various BVDV subgenotypes has been documented in European countries, indicating greater genetic diversity of the virus on this continent.