Little information is published, so far, regarding bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. This study is the first of its kind in the country. Its aim was to explore the BVD situation in a large dairy farm, which has been experiencing reproduction problems suggestive of BVD virus infection, albeit the practice of routine vaccination. The study took two pathways; the first involved establishment of a cohort of sentinel calves so as: (a) to note the BVD virus activity in the farm by following the time lapse and pattern for waning of the maternally derived antibodies and detection of any subsequent seroconversion and (b) to look for any clinical signs suggestive of BVD virus infection in these calves. The second pathway was to assess the level of herd immunity in the different age groups of lactating cows and maiden heifers. The obtained results were discussed, and control strategies were outlined.