This work was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence, to identify potential factors that influence seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and to investigate the association between BVDV serostatus and occurrence of reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in three milksheds in Ethiopia. A total of 1379 serum samples were obtained from cattle randomly selected from 149 herds from three milksheds representing central, southern, and western Ethiopia. Sera samples were examined for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies using commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate associations between risk factors and the risk of BVDV seroprevalence, and BVDV serostatus and reproductive disorders. Seroreaction to BVDV antigens was detected in 32.6% of the 1379 cattle and 69.8% of the 149 herds sampled. Factors associated with BVDV seroplevalence were age, breed, and herd size (P < 0.05). Adult cattle ≥ 18 months old had 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 3.1) times the odds of BVDV seroreaction than younger cattle. Holstein-Friesian (HF) local crosses (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.3, 3.4) and HFs (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.9, 1.9) were more likely to be seropositive than Jersey and the odds of seropositivity in cattle in large herds with 11 or more animals were higher (OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.3, 2.5) than the odds of BVDV seropositivity in smaller herds. Seroprevalence was not associated with geographical region (P > 0.05). Risk of reproductive disorders was not affected by BVDV serostatus, except for repeat breeding (P > 0.05). The present study demonstrated that BVDV has wide distribution in the country being detected in all the 15 conurbations and 69.8% of herds involved in the study.